Jute Fiber

Jute fiber is a natural bast fiber. It is one of the most affordable natural fibers and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses of vegetable fibers. It is harder than other textile fibers. It is environment friendly. Normally jute is used for sacking, burlap, and twine as a backing material for tufted carpets.


In the selection process, raw jute bales are opened to find out any defect and to remove the defective portion from the Mora by experienced workers. Raw jute bales are of two types i.e. 150 kg weight and 180 kg weight with or without top portion cutting

Jute Fabric Processing

The bales are assorted according to end use like Hessian weft, sacking wrap, sacking weft etc. After selection, jute bales are carried to softening section by the workers.

Batch & Batching

A number of bales of jute selected for the purpose of manufacturing a particular type of yarn in known as batch. Batching covers all the process preparatory to carding. The main purpose of batching is to add oil and water to make the jute fiber flexible, soft and stiff free.

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Jute is composed of 65% cellulose and 35% natural wages, oils and cements (lignin).
The chemical composition of jute is given below:



In softening process jute moras are made soft and pliable. Two methods are used for softening; use of softening machine and use of jute good spreader. Generally an emulsion plant with jute softener machine is used to lubricate and soften the bark and gummy raw jute. The emulsion plant consists of gear pump, motor, vat, jet sprayer, nozzles, emulsion tank and the jacket. In this softening process jute becomes soft and pliable and suitable for carding.

Piling and Pile Breaking

Piling and Pile Breaking

Conditioning or piling refers to the rest stage, in which jute is given after the water and oil have been applied. It lasts longer with low grade batching to allow the hard barky root material to become softened before passing on the cards. The main function of pile breaker is to break the pile and serve it to the carding machines. The softener machine output material is carried by pile men through bile to the pile place for pilling. During piling superficial moisture penetrates inside Fiber and “Thermo fillic” action take place which softener the hard portion of the root. After piling for nearly 24 hours the pile breakers carry the material to the carding machine.

Jute Carding

Jute Carding

The process by which long reeds of jute while passing through high speed pinned roller and broken down into an entangled mass and delivered in the form of ribbon uniform weight per unit length called jute carding.

Breaker Carding

Breaker Carding

In the Breaker carding machine soften jute after piling is feed by hand in suitable weight. The machine by action with different rollers turns out raw jute in the form of jute sliver for finisher carding. In this process root cutting is necessary before feeding the material to the hand feed breaker carding machine.

Finisher Carding

Finisher Carding

Finisher carding machine make the sliver more uniform and regular in length and weight obtained from the Breaker carding machine. Finisher carding machine is identical to the Breaker carding machine, having more pair of rollers, staves, pinning arrangement and speed. Nearly 4 to 12 slivers obtained from Breaker carding machine is fed on this machine. The material thus obtained is send to drawing section.

Jute Drawing

Jute Drawing

Drawing is a process for reducing sliver width and thickness by simultaneously mixing 4 to 6 sliver together. There are three types of Drawing Frame machine. In most mills 3 Drawing passages are used in Hessian and 2 Drawing passages are used in Sacking.

First Drawing

First Drawing

The slivers obtained from finisher carding machine is fed with four slivers on to the first drawing frame machine. The first drawing frame machines makes blending, equalizing the sliver and doubling two or more slivers, level and provide quality and color. This machine includes delivery roller, pressing roller, retaining roller, faller screw sliders, check spring, back spring, crimpling box etc.

Second Drawing

Second Drawing

In second drawing, the Second Drawing Frame machine obtain the sliver from the First drawing machine and use six slivers and deliveries per head. The Second Drawing machine makes more uniform sliver and reduce the jute into a suitable size for third drawing.

Third Drawing

In the third drawing, the Third Drawing frame machine uses the sliver from second drawing. The Third Drawing machine is of high speed makes the sliver more crimpled and suitable for spinning.

A quality conscious culture

Krishna Hessians , the pioneering quality plus mill puts a premium on quality. That is why we follow manufacturing practice conforming to stringent quality norms.


Jute Spinning

Spinning is the process for producing yarn from sliver obtained from Third drawing. The jute spinning frame machine is fitted with slip draft zone and capable of producing quality yarns at high efficiency with auto-doffing arrangements also.




Weaving is a process of interlacement of two series of threads called “wrap” and “weft” yarns to produce the fabric of desired quality. There are separate Dornier looms for hessian weaving section. The Hessian looms, which contents spools (weft yarn) is manually changed.




Damping is the process in which the rolled woven cloth is unrolled and water is sprinkled on it continuously to provide desired moisture. Each roll is generally104 yards or 95.976 meters. Damping is done manually.


Calendaring is a process similar to ironing of fabric. After damping the damped fabric passes through pairs of heavy rollers rendering threads in fabric flattened and improve the quality and appearance.




Lapping is the process in which Hessian fabrics are folded into the required size used in “Bale press” operation on the lapping machine.




Bags or Bale processing cloths are pressed compactly according to buyers need.

Advantages of Jute Fiber

  1. Jute Fiber has great antistatic properties; so that any kind of static charges are not produced during Jute Product making or using.
  2. Jute is an insulating fiber and this is why it can be used to make cloth which would be used in electrical works.
  3. Temperature is passed in this fiber slowly because of the low thermal conductivity.
  4. Moisture Regain properties is good enough (about 13.75%).
  5. Produce no irritation in skin.
  6. 100% Biodegradable; so it is environment friendly fiber like Cotton.
  7. Cheap in market.
  8. Available in the market and the overall productivity of Jute Fiber is good.
  9. Tensile strength is high.
  10. Jute Fabric is highly breathable and comfortable to use.
  11. Can be widely used in Agriculture Sector, Textile Sector, Woven Sector, Non-woven Sector.
  12. Jute Fiber can be blended with Natural and Synthetic fibers.
  13. Can be died by Basic, Vat, sulfur and Reactive Dyes

Chemical Composition of Jute

Jute is composed of 65% cellulose and 35% natural wages, oils and cements (lignin).

The chemical composition of jute is given below:

  1. Cellulose………………………………… 65.2%
  2. Hemicelluloses ………………………….22.2%
  3. Lignin ……………………………………..10.8%
  4. Water soluble …………………………..1.5%
  5. Fat and wax …………………………….0.3 – 1.0%

Due to its worldwide demand different country manufacture jute goods. Jute goods produce by a line of sequence.

Its manufacturing process is completely different from cotton. By the following way jute goods are produced:

Krishna Hessians is admired globally for its uniformly high quality products. Backed by a strong R & D setup and a spirit of innovativeness, Krishna Hessians has many breakthroughs in product development to its credit. Krishna Hessians conventional jute products enjoy a commanding position in the market. Variety-in-acceptance customized products, modernization has helped in product up gradation and diversification. The state-of-the-art design section manned by experts, roll out products in myriad designs to the satisfaction of our customers across the globe. The section also comes handy in giving shape to customized products.

As is to be expected of a pioneer, Krishna Hessians has a good number of jute products to its credit. These include special jute yarn used throughout the world by the carpet industry and other uses are carpet-backing cloth, jute webbing, cotton bagging, soil saver, scrim cloth and special blended fabrics. Krishna Hessians is the most sought after mills for sourcing special fabrics (elegant, royal, prince, juco, mat weave, check weave etc. ) required by the shopping bags manufacturers and/or meeting the requirements of fashion accessories made of jute and jute blends. Krishna Hessians also makes efforts to maintain stocks of worldwide special products to meet the customers’ urgent requirements also.

Our new products are finding application all over the world in automobile, road-building, construction, special packaging, carpets and matting, decorative items and furnishing material. Thanks to R & D successes, the Krishna Hessians range of products keeps on increasing. Among the new products waiting to be launched are, deodorized fabrics and fancy fabrics. Krishna Hessians is rightly considered the most versatile and reliable source of procuring jute and jute blended materials. R & D work is on to make Krishna Hessians fabrics emit a pleasant smell.

Spool Winding

In Spool Winding yarn is produces for warp (the longitudinal yarn). Spool winding machine consists of a number of spindles. There is wide variation in the number of spindles per machines from one make to another. Productivity of spool winding depends on the surface speed of the spindle and machine utilization. Spool winding machine uses the bobbins contain smaller length of yarn. This machine wound the yarn into bigger packages known as ‘spool’. The Spool is used in making sheets of yarn to form warp portion used during inter lacement of weaving.


Beaming process is follows after spool winding. In Beaming operation yarn from spool is wounded over a beam of proper width and correct number of ends to weave jute cloth.

To increase the quality of woven cloth and weaving efficiency, the wrap yarns are coated with starch paste. Adequate moisture is essential in this process. Quality characteristic of a beam is width of beam – number of ends and weight of stand and there is a continuous passage of yarn through starch solution from spools to the beam. Starch solution in water contains tamerine kernel powder (TKP), antiseptic – sodium silica fluride (NaSiF4) and its concentration varies with the quality of yarn.

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